Goniometer, Goniometer Base and Head
The whole goniometer assembly is composed of the base, the goniometer itself and the head. The goniometer is mounted on the base, which can be shifted horizontally in a direction perpendicular to the x-ray beam. The lower section of the goniometer is firmly mounted on the base and thus can only move together with the base. The upper section of the goniometer can be rotated with respect to the lower section. The rotation can only be done with the R-AXIS software. The goniometer head (there are different types) can be taken off from the goniometer. The head provides additional flexibility for aligning a sample, which is mounted on the very top of the head. The top of the head can be translated horizontally. Furtheremore, the top can also be moved up-and-down.
The most critical thing about the goniometer is that its rotation axis must intercept perfectly with the x-ray beam and this is probably the only thing that requires frenquent check.
Check out goniometer alignment for detailed alignment procedure.